Further Reading

The following references offer a much deeper insight into feline respiratory disease. Some papers can be downloaded and read offline.

View Feline References

View Canine References

View Equine References

Feline References

Adamama-Moraitou K., Patsikas M., Koutinas A., Feline lower airway disease: a retrospective study of naturally occuring cases from Greece. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2004) 6:227-233

Bexfield N., (2005). Self Assessment. UK Vet 10 (8) 53-55
Download the article UK Vet Article.pdf (220Kb)

Boothe, D.M. and McKiernan, B.C. (1992). Respiratory therapeutics. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 22: 1231-1258

Caron, I. and Carioto, L. (2003). Feline Asthma…a disease that cuts your breath. Can Vet J 44 (8): 654-656

Cohn LA., DeClue AE., Cohen RL., Reinero CR. Effects of fluticasone proprionate dosage in an experimental model of feline asthma. Journal of feline medicine and surgery (12):91-96

Cooper, E.S., Syring, R.S. and King, L.G. (2003). Pneumothorax in Cats with a Clinical Diagnosis of Feline Asthma: Five Cases (1990-2000) J Vet Emerg Crit Care 13 (2): 95-101.

Corcoran, B.M., Foster, D.J. and Luis Fuentes, V. (1995). Feline asthma syndrome: A retrospective study of the clinical presentation in 29 cats. Journal of Small Animal Practice 36: 481-488

d’Anjou MA., Gadbois J., Dunn M., Beauregard G., D’Astus J., Beauchamp G. Feline asthma: prevalence of radiographic findings. Journal of Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound (2007) 48(2):164

DeClue AE., Schooley E., Nafe LA., Reinero CR. feG-COOH blunts eosinophilic airway inflammationin a feline model of allergic asthma. Inflammation research (2009) 58:457-462

Dowling, P.M. (2001) Options for Treating Feline Asthma. Vet Med 96 (5): 353-356

Dye, J.A. (1992) Feline bronchopulmonary disease. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 22: 1187-1201

Dye, J.A., McKiernan, B.C., Rozanski, E.A., Hoffmann, W.E., Losonsky, J.M., Homco, L.D., Weisiger, R.M. and Kakoma, I. (1996). Bronchopulmonary disease in the cat: historical, physical, radiographic, clinicopathologic, and pulmonary function evaluation of 24 affected and 15 healthy cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 10: 385-400

Feline Advisory Bureau ‘Inhalers for cats’. Veterinary Review 90 (April 2004)
Download the article VR90.pdf (68Kb)

Feline Advisory Bureau ‘Asthma in Cats’. information sheet

Gunn-Moore, Danielle, BSc, BVM&S, PhD, MACVSc, MRCVS – “Chronic Coughing in Cats”
Download the article Part I (165Kb pdf) – Part II (266Kb pdf) – Part III (121Kb pdf)

Gunn-Moore, Danielle, BSc, BVM&S, PhD, MACVSc, MRCVS – “Dyspnoea in Cats ”
Download the article Dyspnoea in Cats.pdf ( 112Kb)

Harvey, A., BVSc Cert.SAM, MRCVS (2004) Feline Asthma. Veterinary Times 34.22 10-11
Download the article VT34-22.pdf (171Kb)

Hawkins, E.C., Kennedy-Stoskopf, S., Levy, J., Meuten, D.J., Cullins, L., DeNicola, D., Tompkins, W.A. and Tompkins, M.B. (1994). Cytologic characterization of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected through endotracheal tube in cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 55: 795-802

Hibbert, A, BVSc DipECVIM-CA, MRCVS (2010) Therapy for feline asthma. ISFM, Birmingham 2010
Download the article Therapy for feline asthma (653Kb PDF)

Hill J. Diseases of respiratory organs. In: Jenkins, W.R editors: The diseases of the cat, New York, 1906, p11-21

Hirt, R.A., (2005) Feline asthma – a review and new insights European Journal of Companion Animal Practice 15-2 22-36
Download the article Fecava 15-2.pdf (187Kb)

Johnson LR., Drazenovich TL., Flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage in 68 cats (2001-2006) Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2007) 21(2):219

Johnson, L.R., Queen, E.V., Vernau, W., Sykes, J.E. and Byrne, B.A. (2013), Microbiologic and Cytologic Assessment of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid from Dogs with Lower Respiratory Tract Infection: 105 Cases (2001–2011). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 27: 259–267. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12037

Kirschvink N, Leemans J, Delvaux F, Snaps F, Jaspart S, Evrard B, Delattre L, Cambier C, Clercx C, Gustin P.INHALED FLUTICASONE REDUCES BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS AND AIRWAY INFLAMMATION IN CATS WITH MILD CHRONIC BRONCHITIS. J Feline Med Surg.2006 Feb; 8(1): 45-54

Kirschvink N, Leemans J, Delvaux F, Snaps F, Clercx C, Gustin P. BRONCHODILATORS IN BRONCHOSCOPY-INDUCED AIRFLOW LIMITATION IN ALLERGEN-SENSITIZED CATS. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 2005 March; 19 (2): 161-167.

Lecuyer, M., Dube, P-G., DiFruscia, R., Desnoyers, M. and Lagace, A. (1995). Bronchoalveolar lavage in normal cats. Canadian Veterinary Journal 36: 771-773

Lee-Fowler TM., Cohn LA., DeClue AE., Spinka CM., Reinero CR. Evaluation of subcutaneous versus mucosal (intranasal) allergen-specific immunotherapy in experimental feline asthma. Journal of Veterinary Immonology and Imunoipathology (2009) 129:49-56

Leemans J, Kirschvink N, Clercx C, Snaps F, Gustin P.EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM ORAL AND INHALED CORTICOSTEROIDS ON AIRWAY INFLAMMATION AND RESPONSIVENESS IN A FELINE ACUTE ASTHMA MODEL. Vet J. 2012 Apr; 192(1): 41-8.

Lin, C.-H., Wu, H.-D., Lee, J.-J. and Liu, C.-H. (2014), Functional Phenotype and its Correlation with Therapeutic Response and Inflammatory Type of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Feline Lower Airway Disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12494

Mandelker, L. (2000). Experimental drug therapy for respiratory disorders in dogs and cats. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 22: 1087-1099

Mardell, E., (2007). Investigation and treatment of feline chronic bronchial disease. In Practice March 2007; 29 (3):138-146

Masoli, M., Weatherall, M., Ayling, J., Williams, M., Beasley, R., (2005). The 24 h duration of bronchodilator action of the salmeterol/fluticasone combination inhaler. Respir Med. 2005 May;99(5):545-52.

Masoli, M., Weatherall, M., Holt, S., Beasley, R., (2005) Moderate dose inhaled corticosteroids plus salmeterol versus higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids in symptomatic asthma. Thorax. 2005 Sep;60(9):730-4

McCarthy, G. and Quinn, P.J. (1989). Bronchoalveolar lavage in the cat: cytologic findings. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 53: 259-263

Mitsuhiro Kamimura1, Shinyu Izumi2, Yoichiro Hamamoto1, Akane Morita1, Emiko Toyota2, Nobuyuki Kobayashi2 and Koichiro Kudo2 “Superiority of Nebulized Corticosteroids over Dry Powder
Inhalers in Certain Patients with Cough Variant Asthma or Cough-Predominant Asthma” Allergology International. 2012;61:411-417
Download the article Allergology International. 2012;61411-417

Moise, N.S., Wiedenkeller, D., Yeager, A.E., Blue, J.T. and Scarlett, J. (1989). Clinical, radiographic, and bronchial cytologic features of cats with bronchial disease: 65 cases (1980-1986). Journal of the American Veterinary Medicine Association 194: 1467-1473

Norris, C.R., Decile, K.C., Byerly, J.R., Berghaus, R.D., Walby, W.F., Hyde, D.M., Schelegle, E.S. and Gershwin, L.J. (2003) Effects of an Inhaled Steroid and a Leukotriene Receptor Antagonist in Experimental Feline Asthma. ACVIM Proceedings

Norris, C.R. (2003) Feline Asthma: Lessons Learned from an Experimental Model. ACVIM Proceedings

Padrid PA. Animal models of asthma. In: Ligett SB., Meyers DA., editors: The genetics of asthma lung biology in health and disease, New York, 1996, Marcel Dekker, P211

Padrid, P.A. (2000). Feline asthma – diagnosis and treatment. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice 30: 1279-1293

Padrid, P (2001) Inhaled Drugs for Feline Asthma. WSAVA World Congress Proceedings

Padrid, P. (2003) Diagnosis and Treatment of Feline Asthma. ACVIM Proceedings.

Padrid,P. USE OF INHALED MEDICATIONS TO TREAT RESPIRATORY DISEASES IN DOGS AND CATS. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc.2006 Mar-Apr; 42(2): 154-9.

Padrid, P., Respiratory Medicine June 2004
Download the article Respiratory medicine.pdf (97Kb)

Padrid: Chronic bronchitis and asthma in cats. In: Bonagura JD., Twedt DC. editors: Kirk’s Current Veterinary Therapy XIV, St Louis, 2009, Elseview Saunders p650-658

Padrid, P.A., Feldman, B.F., Funk, K., Samitz, E.M., Reil, D. and Cross, C.E. (1991). Cytologic, microbiologic and biochemical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from 24 healthy cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research 52: 1300-1307

Pernas, G S. Feline Asthma Veterinary Focus Vol 20 (2) (2010)
Download the article Feline asthma – Veterinary Focus 20(2) 2010.pdf (1.88Mb)

Reinero CR., DeClue AE., Rabinowitz P. Astham in humans and cats: is there a common sensitivity to aeroallergens in a shared environment? Environmental Research (2009) 109:634-640

Reinero, CR. The Beta-agonist paradox: is albuterol detrimental for asthma? In ACVIM Proceedings 2008 p459-460

Reinero Cr., Decile K., Byerly J., Berghaus R., Walby W., Hyde D., Schelegle E., Gershwin L. Effects of drug treatment on inflammation and hyper-reactivity of airways andd immune variables in cats with experimentally induced asthma. Amercian Journal of Veterinary Research (2005) 66:1121-1127

Rozanski EA, Bach JF, Shaw SP. Advances in respiratory therapy. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract.2007 Sep; 37(5): 963-74

Sharp, C.R., Lee-Fowler, T.M. and Reinero, C.R. (2013), Endothelin-1 Concentrations in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid of Cats with Experimentally Induced Asthma. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 27: 982–984. doi: 10.1111/jvim.12119

Sparkes, A. BVetMed PhD DipECVIM-CA MRCVS – “Chronic Bronchial Disease in Cats”
Download the article Chronic Bronchial Disease in Cats.pdf (54Kb)

Venema, C., Patterson, C. Feline Asthma – What’s new and where might clinical practice be heading? Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (2010) 12, 681-692
Download the article Feline asthma JFMS 2010.pdf (1.9Mb)

Veterinary Times ‘Feline Asthma becoming more prevalent claim researchers’ (2004)
Download the article VT34-20.pdf (76Kb)

Ybarra, W.L., Johnson, L.R., Drazenovich, T.L., Johnson, E.G. and Vernau, W. (2012), Interpretation of Multisegment Bronchoalveolar Lavage in Cats (1/2001–1/2011). Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 26: 1281–1287. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2012.01016.x

 

Canine References 

Bexfield, N.H., Foale, R.D., Davison, L.J., Watson, P.J., Skelly, B.J., and Herrtage, M.E. “Management of 13 cases of canine respiratory disease using inhaled corticosteroids”
Journal of Small Animal Practice 2006 47 (7): 377-382
Download the article (168Kb) Here…

Church D., “Dyspnoea and Coughing” WSAVA Vancouver 2001
Download the article dyspnoea-and-coughing (66Kb)

Cohn LA, DeClue AE, Reinero CR. ENDOCRINE AND IMMUNOLOGIC EFFECTS OF INHALED FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE IN HEALTHY DOGS. J Vet Intern Med. 2008; 22: 37-43.

Elwood, C., “The Management of Suspected Allergic Airway Disease in Dogs”

Veterinary Times 35.04 Feb 2005
Download the Article Part 1 (760Kb) Part 2 (1.3Mb)

Masoli, M., Weatherall, M., Ayling, J., Williams, M., Beasley, R., (2005). “The 24 h duration of bronchodilator action of the salmeterol/fluticasone combination inhaler.” Respir Med. 2005 May;99(5):545-52.

Masoli, M., Weatherall, M., Holt, S., Beasley, R., (2005) “Moderate dose inhaled corticosteroids plus salmeterol versus higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids in symptomatic asthma.” Thorax. 2005 Sep;60(9):730-4

McKiernan B.C. (2000) “Diagnosis and treatment of canine chronic bronchitis. Twenty years of experience.” Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2000 Nov; 30 (6): 1267-78

McKiernan B., “Respiratory Endoscopy” WSAVA Vancouver 2001
Download the article respiratory-endoscopy.pdf (72Kb)

Mitsuhiro Kamimura1, Shinyu Izumi2, Yoichiro Hamamoto1, Akane Morita1, Emiko Toyota2, Nobuyuki Kobayashi2 and Koichiro Kudo2 “Superiority of Nebulized Corticosteroids over Dry Powder
Inhalers in Certain Patients with Cough Variant Asthma or Cough-Predominant Asthma” Allergology International. 2012;61:411-417
Download the article Allergology International. 2012;61411-417

Padrid P.A., Hornof W.J., Kurpershoek C.J., Cross C.E. (1990) “Canine chronic bronchitis. A pathophysiologic evaluation of 18 cases.” J Vet Intern Med. 1990 May-June; 4 (3): 172-80

Padrid P., “Diagnosis and therapy of Chronic Bronchitis” WSAVA Vancouver 2001
Download the article Diagnosis and therapy of chronic bronchitis.pdf (66Kb)

Padrid, P., Respiratory Medicine June 2004
Download the article respiratory-medicine (97Kb)

Padrid P. USE OF INHALED MEDICATIONS TO TREAT RESPIRATORY DISEASES IN DOGS AND CATS J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2006 Mar-Apr; 42(2): 154-9.

 

 

Equine References

Ammann VJ, Vrins AA, Lavoie J-P. Effects of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate on respiratory function in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Equine Vet J 1998;30:152-157.

Armstrong PJ, Derksen FJ, Robinson NE, et al. Airway responses to aerosolized methacholine and citric acid in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Am Rev Respir Dis 1986;133:357-361.

Art T, Kirschvink N, Smith N, et al. Indices of oxidative stress in blood and pulmonary epithelium lining fluid in horses suffering from recurrent airway obstruction. Equine Vet J 1999;31:397-401.

Art T, Kirschvink N, Smith N, et al. Cardiorespiratory measurements and indices of oxidative stress in exercising COPD horses. Equine Vet J Suppl 1999;30:83-7.

Aviza GA, Ainsworth DM, Eicker SW, et al. Outcome of horses diagnosed and treated for heaves (recurrent airway obstruction). Equine Vet Educ 2001;3:318-320.

Barnes PJ. Molecular mechanisms of glucocorticoid action in asthma. Pulm Pharmacol Ther 1997;10:3-19.

Barnes N. Relative safety and efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:S460-4.

Barnes PJ, Pedersen S, Busse WW. Efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroids. New developments. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1998;157:S1-53.

Breeze RG. Heaves: The problem of disease definition. Vet Clin North Am Large Anim Pract 1979; 1:219-230.

Broadstone RV, Scott JS, Derksen FJ, et al. Effects of atropine in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction. J Appl Physiol 1988;65:2720-2725.

Broadstone RV, Scott JS, Derksen FJ, et al. In vitro response of airway smooth muscle from horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Pulm Pharmacol 1991;4:191-202.

Broadstone RV, Robinson NE, Gray PR, et al. Effects of furosemide on ponies with recurrent airway obstruction. Pulm Pharmacol 1991;4:203-208.

Broadstone RV, Gray PG, Robinson NE, et al. Effects of xylazine on airway function in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Vet Res 1992;53:1813-1817.

Bureau F, Delhalle S, Bonizzi G, et al. Mechanisms of persistent NF-?B activity in the bronchi of an animal model of asthma. J. Immunol 2000; 165: 5822-5830.

Burton, A.J., Giguere, S. and Arnold, R.D. Pharmacokinetics, pulmonary disposition and tolerability of liposomal gentamicin and free gentamicin in foals Equine Veterinary Journal ISSN 0425-1644
DOI: 10.1111/evj.12309 Download the article Equine Veterinary Journal ISSN 0425-1644

Costa LRA, Seahorn TL, Moore RM, et al. Correlation of clinical score, intrapleural pressure, cytologic findings of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and the histopathologic lesions of pulmonary tissue with summer pasture-associated obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Vet Res 2000; 61:167-173.

Cunningham FE, Rogers S, Fischer JH, et al. The pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone in the thoroughbred racehorse. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1996;19:68-71.

Derksen FJ, Scott JS, Slocombe RF, et al. Micropolyspora faeni causes airway inflammation but not hyperresponsiveness in sensitized ponies. J Appl Physiol 1987;62:1398-1404.

Derksen FJ, Robinson NE, Scott JS, et al. Aerosolized Micropolyspora faeni antigen as a cause of pulmonary dysfunction in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Am J Vet Res 1988;49:933-938.

Derksen FJ, Robinson NE, Armstrong PJ, et al. Airway reactivity in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). J Appl Physiol 1985;58:598-604.

Derksen FJ, Scott JS, Miller DC, et al. Bronchoalveolar lavage in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Am Rev Respir Dis 1985;132:1066-1070.

Derksen FJ, Scott DS, Robinson NE, et al. Intravenous histamine adminstration in ponies with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Am J Vet Res 1985;46:774-777.

Derksen FJ, Brown CM, Sonea I, et al. Comparison of transtracheal aspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage cytology in 50 horses with chronic lung disease. Equine Vet J 1989;21:23-26.

Derksen FJ, Slocombe RF, Brown CM, et al. Chronic restrictive pulmonary disease in a horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982;180:887-9.

Derksen FJ, Olszewski M, Robinson NE, et al. Use of a hand-held, metered-dose aerosol delivery device to administer pirbuterol acetate to horses with ‘heaves’. Equine Vet J 1996;28:306-310.

Derksen FJ, Olszewski MA, Robinson NE, et al. Aerosolized albuterol sulfate used as a bronchodilator in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Vet Res 1999;60:689-693.

Dixon PM, Railton DI, McGorum BC. Equine pulmonary disease: a case control study of 300 referred cases. Part 2: details of animals and historical and clinical findings. Equine Vet J 1995;27:422-427.

Dixon PM. Pulmonary artery pressure in normal horses and in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Equine Vet J 1978;10:195-198.

Duvivier DH, Votion D, Vandenput S, et al. Airway response of horses with COPD to dry powder inhalation of ipratropium bromide. Vet J 1997;154:149-53.

Duvivier DH, Bayly WM, Votion D, et al. Effects of inhaled dry powder ipratropium bromide on recovery from exercise of horses with COPD. Equine Vet J 1999;31:20-4.

Erichsen DF, Aviad AD, Schultz RH, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of clenbuterol HCl when administered to effect in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Equine Vet J 1994;26:331-336.

Fairbairn SM, Page CP, Lees P, et al. Early neutrophil but not eosinophil or platelet recruitment to the lungs of allergic horses following antigen exposure. Clin Exp Allergy 1993;23:821-828.

Fairbairn SM, Lees P, Page CP, et al. Duration of antigen-induced hyperresponsiveness in horses with allergic respiratory disease and possible links with early airway obstruction. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1993;16:469-476.

Franchini M, Gill U, von Fellenberg R, et al. Interleukin-8 concentration and neutrophil chemotactic activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease following exposure to hay. Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1369-74.

Franchini M, Gilli U, Akens MK, et al. The role of neutrophil chemotactic cytokines in the pathogenesis of equine chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1998;66:53-65.

Fultz, L., Giguere, S., Berghaus, L.J., Grover, G.S.,  and Merritt, D.A.; Pulmonary pharmacokinetics of desfuroylceftiofur acetamide after nebulisation or intramuscular administration of ceftiofur sodium to weanling foals Equine Veterinary Journal ISSN 0425-1644  DOI: 10.1111/evj.12316
Download the article Nebulized ceftiofur_evj12316

Gallivan GJ, Viel L, McDonnell WN. An evaluation of the multiple-breath nitrogen washout as a pulmonary function test in horses. Can J Vet Res 1990;54:99-105.

Gerber V, King M, Schneider DA, et al. Tracheobronchial mucus viscoelasticity during environmental challenge in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. Equine Vet J 2000;32:411-7.

Gray PR, Derksen FJ, Robinson NE, et al. The role of cyclo-oxygenase products in the acute airway obstruction and airway hyperreactivity of ponies with heaves. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989;140:154-160.

Grebe SK, Feek CM, Durham JA, et al. Inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate suppresses the hypothalamo-pituitaryadrenal axis in a dose dependent manner. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1997;47:297-304.

Halliwell REW, McGorum BC, Irving P, et al. Local and systemic antibody production in horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1993;38:201-215.

Hare JE, Viel L, Conlon PD, et al. The effect of sodium cromoglycate on light racehorses with elevated metachronomatic cell numbers on bronchoalveolar lavage and reduced exercise tolerance. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1994;17:237-244.

Henrikson SL, Rush BR. Efficacy of salmeterol xinafoate in horses with recurrent airway obstruction. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1961-5.

Herholz C, Busato A, Straub R. [Lung function tests in horses with special reference to ultrasoundspirometry/capnography]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd 2000;142:299-303.

Herholz C, Straub R, Busato A. Ultrasound-spirometry and capnography in horses: analysis of measurement reliability. Vet Res Commun 2001;25:137-47.

Henrikson SL; Rush BR “Efficacy of salmeterol xinafoate in horses with recurrent airway obstruction” J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001 Jun 15;218(12)

Hoffman A H, “Inhaled medication for small airway disease in horses” proc.13th ACVIM Forum, 758, Lake Buena Vista Fl., 1995

Holcombe SJ, Jackson C, Gerber V, et al. Stabling is associated with airway inflammation in young Arabian horses. Equine Vet J 2001;33:244-9.

Hudson NPH, “Management of a case of summer pasture associated obstructive pulmonary disease by inhaled corticosteroids and environmental control” Equine Veterinary Education, 1999, 11(#) , 116-120

Jackson CA, Berney C, Jefcoat AM, et al. Environment and prednisone interactions in the treatment of recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Equine Vet J 2000;32:432-438.

Jackson CA, Robinson NE, Berney CEA, et al. Prednisone–is it really effective in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? In: Proceedings of the 45th Annual AAEP Convention 1999;304-305.

Jefcoat AM, Hotchkiss JA, Harkema JR, et al. Persistent mucin glycoprotein alterations in equine recurrent airway obstruction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2001;281:L704-L712.

Kaup F-J, Drommer W, Deegen E. Ultrastructural findings in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) I: alterations of the larger conducting airways. Equine Vet J 1990;22:343-348.

Kaup F-J, Drommer W, Damsch S, et al. Ultrastructural findings in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) II: pathomorphological changes of the terminal airways and the alveolar region. Equine Vet J 1990;22:349-355.

Klein H-J, Deegen E. Histamine inhalation provocation test: Method to identify nonspecific airway reactivity in equine. Am J Vet Res 1986;47:1796-1800.

LaPointe J-M, Lavoie J-P, Vrins AA. Effects of triamcinolone acetonide on pulmonary function and bronchoalveolar lavage cytologic features in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Vet Res 1993;54:1310-1316.

Lavoie JP, Maghni K, Desnoyers M, et al. Neutrophilic Airway Inflammation in Horses with Heaves Is Characterized by a Th2-type Cytokine Profile. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2001;164:1410-3.

Lipworth BJ. Systemic adverse effects of inhaled corticosteroid therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Int Med 1999;159:941-55.

Lotvall J, Svedmyr N. Salmeterol: an inhaled beta 2-agonist with prolonged duration of action. Lung 1993;171:249-64.

Lowell FC. Observations on heaves: an asthma-like syndrome in the horse. J Allergy 1964;35:322-330.

Markham G. Markhams Maister-peece: Containing All Knowledge Belonging to the Smith, Farrier, or Horse-leech. London: W. Wilson, 1656.

Marti E, Gerber H, Essich G, et al. The genetic basis of equine allergic diseases 1. Chronic hypersensitivity bronchitis. Equine Vet J 1991;23:457-460.

Mazan, M R, “Evidence based treatment of non-infectious airway disease” Proc 2009 ACVIM Forum
Download the article Mazan ACVIM 2009 (187Kb)

McGorum BC, Ellison J, Cullen RT. Total and respirable airborne dust endotoxin concentrations in three equine management systems. Equine Vet J 1998;30:430-434.

McGorum BC, Dixon PM, Halliwell REW. Responses of horses affected with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to inhalation challenges with mould antigens. Equine Vet J 1993;25:261-267.

McGorum BC, Dixon PM, Halliwell REW, et al. Comparison of cellular and molecular components of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid harvested from different segments of the equine lung. Res Vet Sci 1993;55:57-59.

McGorum BC, Dixon PM, Halliwell REW. Quantification of histamine in plasma and pulmonary fluids from horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, before and after “natural (hay and straw) challenges”. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1993;36:223-237.

McKiernan BC, Koritz GD, Scott JS, et al. Plasma theophylline concentration and lung function in ponies with recurrent obstructive lung disease. Equine Vet J 1990;22:194-197.

Merc Veterinary Edition “Beta-Adrenergic Agonists”
Download the article Beta-Adrenergic Agonists.pdf (134Kb)

Merc Veterinary Edition “Cromolyn”
Download the article Cromolyn.pdf (44Kb)

Murphy JR, McPherson EA, Dixon PM. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): effects of bronchodilator drugs on normal and affected horses. Equine Vet J 1980;12:10-4.

Nyman G, Lindberg R, Weckner D, et al. Pulmonary gas exchange correlated to clinical signs and lung pathology in horses with chronic bronchiolitis. Equine Vet J 1991;23:253-260.

O’Byrne PM, Pedersen S. Measuring efficacy and safety of different inhaled corticosteroid preparations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;102:879-86.

Olszewski MA, Robinson NE, Zhou FX, et al. Mediators of anaphylaxis but not activated neutrophils augment cholinergic responses of equine small airways. Am J Physiol 1999;276:L522-29.

Olszewski MA, Zhang XY, Robinson NE. Pre- and postjunctional effects of inflammatory mediators in horse airways. Am J Physiol 1999;277:L327-L333.

Pearson EG, Riebold TW. Comparison of bronchodilators in alleviating clinical signs in horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989;194:1287-91.

Peroni JF, Horner NT, Robinson NE, et al. Equine thoracoscopy: normal anatomy and surgical technique. Equine Vet J 2001;33:231-7.

Peroni JF, Robinson NE, Stick JA, et al. Pleuropulmonary and cardiovascular consequences of thoracoscopy performed in healthy standing horses. Equine Vet J 2000;32:280-6.

Petsche VM, Derksen FJ, Robinson NE. Tidal breathing flow-volume loops in horses with recurrent airway obstruction (heaves). Am J Vet Res 1994;55:885-891.

Raulo SM, Sorsa TA, Maisi PS. Concentrations of elastinolytic metalloproteinases in respiratory tract secretions of healthy horses and horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Vet Res 2000;61:1067-73.

Raulo SM, Sorsa T, Tervahartiala T, et al. MMP-9 as a marker of inflammation in tracheal epithelial lining fluid (TELF) and in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) of COPD horses. Equine Vet J 2001;33:128-36.

Robinson N E; “Recurrent Airway Obstruction (Heaves)” Equine Respiratory Diseases 2001
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